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Monday, 7 May 2012


Imagine that the world does not have a proper land-use planning. Development growths everywhere and brings neither enhancement impact nor good.  Conflict over the land use usage might be a serious case for the next generation.
            Land is a part of earth surface that is not covered by water, as opposed to the sea or the air, (Google, 2012). Meanwhile, land-use planning bring a meaning of an amount of land to be generate which have a specific function for different human purposes or for any economic activities. For example, residential area, commercial centre, recreational park, nature protection nature and many more.
             In Europe, land-use planning can be divided into several classifications, develop by the Economic Commission for Europe such;
        i.            Forest and other wooded land
      ii.            Agricultural land
    iii.            Built-up and related land (excluding scattered farm building)
     iv.            Wet open land
       v.            Dry open land with special vegetation cover
     vi.            Open land without or with significant vegetation covers and water.
Most of the classifications made by EC for Europe are good to be absorbed and practise in Malaysia. In Malaysia, the land-use planning and controlling development of land uses is exercised primarily by the local and state authorities. Moreover, in Malaysia, the adoption of land use planning approach varies depend on the context, experiences and practices of the urban development process, in particular places and time (Ibrahim, 1998)
            It is important to apply land-use planning in once country. Furthermore, land-use planning plays an important role in the management of change. The need for changes in land use, or action to prevent some unwanted change must be accepted by the people involved.

Importance of Land Use Planning

3.1 Society
3.1.1 Society-Individual
Land use planning is to manage the development of land within its jurisdictions. In doing so, the developer unit can plan for the needs of the individual, community and business while safeguarding natural resources. The sustainable city is the city which provides their own needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs too. There are many assessments on land planning and land management that have been done and still in progress to find the needs of individual and communities. People who live in urban and rural area have different needs and from time to time their needs are keep changes.
In a land use planning that meets the need of individuals; they have to assess the residential area. The housing layout must meet the criteria such as safe neighborhood, attractive surrounding and the public utilities that developer has offered with their housing design. First, the safety requirement in residential area is important to be achieved. The expectation that developer can make the housing area is safety is by less road access. The road access is less, the more safety the residential area. This may avoid from robber cases in residential area. Plus, the good road design can reduce the accident rates. Hence, it must avoid from build the Y-shape road, staggered junction and others road design that can cause accident. The safety that developer can provides also are by placing CCTV on the main road to secure the in-out vehicles in residential area, the pass card for every residents as they have to show the card on the main entrances, and others. Secondly, the attractive surrounding may enhance the people to live in the area.      Kuala Lumpur as the metropolitan city provides a residential area which is living in urban-green environment. This is a good way to people who are still thinking to have a fresh air in urban area. This is attracting because when the urban heat affects people lives, the planting trees on that area can be the cold-agent to fight the heat emitted in the urban area. The nice landscape design also attracts people to living in that area as it automatically provides a beautiful panorama for residents.

The public utilities are one of the important criteria in housing management. It is a need for everyone to have good utilities surrounding their residential area. The public utilities are such as the electricity provided, water supply in that area, the waste management, the telecommunication services and district cooling. The electricity and water supply are two main things that human need in their daily lives. Hence, the electrical sub-station should be installed in those areas to provide the electric current for all residents without making any major problems to residents. The water supply is important, and developers have to be concern on water supply. The water tank should be place in the right location such as on a hill as it can give a smooth water flow to houses. The oxidation pond should be far away from the residential area because it is not a nice surrounding if it places together and the smell could make the residents to feel uncomfortable.  One of the reasons people will choose to live in that residential area is because the telecommunication provided. The telecommunications provided are such as the wireless internet area such as UNIFI, the TM Net telecommunication, the Digi, Celcom and Maxis telecommunication territory area. In this high technology modern world, it is important for people to communicate indirectly using internet and cell phones.

3.1.2 Society-Community
In housing development planning those have to meet the need of the community is important to be achieved. It is more to plan and manage the housing development for everyone living in that development area. The developer has to think deeply on the public facilities that have to build strategically in that development area, the places of worship, community area and sub-commercial area. All of these four areas need to be located at perfect location. This is because developer responsible to ensure a comfort life for everyone living in that area and build a good community relationship between residents.
The sub-commercial centre should have an easy road access and near for everyone to go. It is suitable to be located on the centre of the development area as residents can go to the location in few minutes only. It is better if the sub-commercial centre has its own pedestrian walk for safety. Developer should take note for bungalow houses and semi-detached houses should have their own privacy, hence developer should create a natural obstruction between sub-commercial areas with this type of houses area by make a linear park surrounding the houses area.
The places of worship have to be built as it is one of the important buildings in residential area. Community also can have a good time together by going to this place of worship with many purposes can be held by them. Public facilities satisfy specific individual or community needs are including the safety and security, communication, recreation, sport, education, health, religious, cultural and social. The public amenities that most of the developers have equipped are such as the sport complexes which are futsal court, gym and swimming pool. The recreation park for community to get fresh air while jog and their kids can play at playground can creates a nice community area where people are spending their time in the nice recreation park.
The community hall is good for residents who live in terrace and low-cost houses area. They can make any community events using this community hall. Apart of it, when they want to make a wedding ceremony, they may use the community hall which provides the space for any big events. Hence, these development areas which meet the needs of community are good to be built.

3.1.3 Society-Bussines
Society. A term referred to the community of people living in a particular country or region and having shared customs, laws and organization. (Oxford,n.d). In other words, society is a group of people related to each other, sharing the same geographical or virtual territory, subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Next, what is business? It is an organization that engaged in the trade of goods and services to consumers. (Wikipedia, n.d). It share same definition as economy, the only difference is that business is something that we can see. Economy is more explicit, need to be analyzed to be seen through. Back to the topic, how does land use planning affect society business?
Never in my life had I seen a town without shops. Even in a very rural area, there’s still a shop, at least a small mini market selling goods for the residences. Not only it’ll provide all the necessities to the residence, it’ll also provide some sort of business for the seller. Hence, what actually its relationship with land use planning?
As mentioned before, a good design plan will provide maximum needs that’ll later attract many to invest in it. So, this is where the business is related. Nowadays, planner tends to include at least a row of shop lots into their design. This can bring some business prospect to a society interested in it. However, the attraction depends on how high the demand in that area. To make it simple, TESCO this day had been opened many of its branches all around the nation. It’s not open at random place. They look for a high density places to open their branch. For example, in Kampar, Perak, ten years before, people need to go to Ipoh, travelling nearly 50 kilometers just to go to a hypermarket. But, as the development absorbed into that area, resulting many residential and a university to be built there, TESCO take an action to open its branch there. Simplicity, the well-developed area, depends on how well it is designed which later will attract many business society to try the market there.
The previous paragraph focused mainly on the business involved society point of view. Now, we’ll look into the residential point of view. How exactly business affect this society of people as it invaded their residential. In a positive way, as there’s business opened near their area, no more worries for them to travel far just to buy a daily necessities. Planner nowadays always takes in account that the shops must be near to the residential, better if it’s only a walking distance. If not, they tend to plan to build one in the future which later gives the residence an easy life. On the other side, the developed business will also provide job opportunities for the residence. For example, as mentioned in previous paragraph, about TESCO. Before their newly opened branches can be operated, they need to employ large quantity of people to work under them. This create a job opportunities for a surrounding people which later will increase the income of the family. As the income increased, the societies’ status also increased. From a poor, with a job, they can climb on stairs to become a moderate family.
To cut a long story short, a well-planned land use can give benefits to the society in terms of business as it will create opportunities for a business society to open their business there. Not only have that, the land proprietor surrounding can benefits too as they can now enjoy the business opened and also working there.
3.2 Economy
3.2.1 Economy-Individual
Land use planning plays an important role in management of change to meet needs of individual economy. How can we elaborate that? First of all, what is economy? As defined by Oxford Dictionary, economy is the state of a country or region in terms of the production and consumption of goods and services and the supply of money. In simpler words, economy is activities related to the production and distribution of goods and services in a particular geographic region. Now, what is the relationship of management of change with economy?
Land use planning is already known for its ability affecting the economy status. In relation to real estate market, this is where land use planning play its role. However, how do it’s satisfy one economic status? For example, how did a middle-class person found the land use planning way benefit him? This is where Bacao quotes; “Good Design, Makes a Differences” seems relevant. The term design doesn’t actually means how beautiful and creative the plan is. It is actually depend on how the designs provide all the needs by public. This will later attract buyers whose really concern about how their investment will satisfy their all-must-paid taxes. It is normal for people to ask what they paid. For example, they pay the road taxes, so it is a must that the road always in a good condition without bringing any danger to them. They paid land revenue, so it is relevant they got a land without any problems. They paid all the utility bills, so it’s significant that they’ll provide with a good maintenance services. 
So, what exactly is the role of land use in management of change to meet needs of individual economy? First of all, in the point of view of the developer, if the planning is great, of course their products will succeed in tight market. It will attract the investors which will lead to the property to be sold. The competition in a real estate market is really high. Only the one provide great necessities will succeed. People nowadays tend to focus not only on the property designed; they also see how the surrounding will make their life comfort. To make it simple, ten years before, nobody think of buying a house near Templer’s Park, Rawang. Surrounded by reserve forest, it is exactly not for human to live on. But, in early 2000, certain developer start to develop that area as public began to take interest in that kind of green-peaceful area.
Secondly, from the land proprietor’s perspective, as the development around his land become rapidly change, his land value will also increase. This is great since he can sell his land at higher price than what he bought before. For the past ten years, many land value in Selangor is increased at least by 15% of its initial value. This is due to Selangor rapid development and its status as nation’s most modern state. This increasing of land value gained interest from the investors and economic analyst not only from inside but foreign country too.
In a nutshell, good land use planning do play an important role in change management for individual economy as it will bring income to the individual related to the land developed.
3.2.2 Economy-Community
In developing a strong economy, it is compulsory to have a community to make it works. Without community, an economy cannot be success. A community basically made up from a lot of different background people. If we may categorized based on occupation, there are people work with the government, with the private sector or open up their own business. In order to achieve a nice and strong economy, the land use planning must provide certain requirement to attract the community. Even, if all other facilities or services are top, but it is lack of interaction between the communities, the economy in that area will still can be shut down. So, there are few criteria that land use planning area must concern to attract the community, which are built housing area that fits the community needs, attractive landscape and facilities and provide a suitable place to run a business.  
First of all, to attract a community, land use planning must built a housing area that satisfied the community needs. To do so, land use planning has to know what the suitable concepts to apply on. This can increase the possibility to attract the community.  Moreover, the land use planning can add some properties value that rise up the value of the house. For example, bungalow houses or the semi-detached houses can add on some extra properties such as a balcony, larger front yard and backyard and others to attract the attention of the high community.
Secondly, it also important to the land use planning to create an attractive, beautiful and creative landscape plus with a safe environment. Attractive, beautiful and creative landscape can give huge advantages as it one of the criteria that a community to look when they want to buy a house. Most of community love to have a calm and green environment. Thus, as land use planning, it will bring benefits if create a housing area with a theme such ‘house in green’. Here, land use planning can provide a buffer area where this area will not be disturbed to any development where this area will be plant with a lot of trees. The land use planning also can build a fake lake to create even more beautiful landscape. With this, a green area is created and lead to beautiful environment. Plus, with all the trees, it can reduces the temperature and maintain humidity to the surrounding, can reduces the pollution occurs others benefits that bring positive impacts to the community life’s. A safe environment is the most important. When we talk about safety, there are fews things that a land use planning must avoided when building the housing area such as avoid Y junction, staggered junction, to many exit and entrance which can lead to easy access to thief  and many more precaution in order to create a safe environment.
Lastly, complete facilities. Facilities that will something will be used by the community. It is important to have a amenity. Talking about amenities, of course it will relate with shop. These shops are certainly important to community as they will buy most of their items there, especially for terrace area. So, the location of these amenities must be near to the terrace area compare to the bungalow and semi-detached area. Besides, other facilities that can be provided are playground for children to play around during evening, green space for a teenager and adolescent to exercise. These can create a healthy environment. The land use planning also can provide a community hall for general purposes that can be used by all. Moreover, public transportation is something can give advantages to community. For those who cannot afford a vehicle, this will bring happiness to them as they will used public transportation to goes around. In addition, provide a shop lot for those who want to make business as their source of income. Here, people can sell and provide services for those who needed.
With all this specification, for sure lot of different community with lot of background will stay at the housing area. Thus, as land use planning it is necessary to some research to fulfill the requirement of community. Indirectly, it can increase the value of the land lot, and then can lead to increase the economy.

In developing and improving an economy, business is one of the major factors. The business which related closely to the investor has their own needs and requirements for them to invest to the land use planning area. There are many criteria  of a land planning which can attracts the investor to do is business and selects an area for its economy investments which are strategic area, have a suitable parking lot around the area and the hygiene of the surrounding environment.
One of major criteria for an investor to invest to the land use planning area is must situated at the strategic area. This plays a vital role as location is the major contribution in order to make sure the business is huge success. A perfect location is an area which easy to access and always full by people. Perfect location is an area that situated at the main road or at the main entrance of housing area.  Area that located along the main road give huge advantages as the entire main road will always be full by cars and vehicles drive by citizen nearby. As they drive, they can spot easily what they are looking such as repair cars shop or a car wash. In addition, when the area selected is near at the main road or main entrance, it easy for the buyer or user to access to the wish area for using the services provided. Compare to the area that situated far from the main road, the drivers usually did not notice the business provided, thus this can lead to unsuccessful business. Moreover, it is also crucial that the area is near to the residential area. This because the one who will buy all the products and use the services provided is of course the people and citizens live nearby. By that, it can increase the opportunity of a business man to success. 
Furthermore, one of the criteria that an investor looking at is the availability of a parking lot. It maybe seems not too important like having a strategic area. But, it is important when the buyer or the user want to parks their cars in the area nearby as they wants to use the services. Imagine that the provided parking lot is situated a bit far from the actual area. It can make the user think twice as they have to walk a bit further compare to park at the front of the shop.
Last but not least, the hygiene of the surrounding area. Hygiene also ones of the important criteria. In order to attract the investor, the land use planning area must provide a suitable dumping area that located away from the crowded area or the target area. The main reasons are to avoid the smell and draw the attention of the rodent. Buyer love to go the area that have nice and clear area from rubbish compare to the area that near the dumping site.  Besides, a good management of drainage system is also an important to avoid such things. For example, the drain itself must satisfied the standard requirement to make sure the system works well such as wider and depth enough to hold the water.

3.3 Environment
3.3.1 Environment-Individual
Environmental factors are almost important for land use planning. Not only just the planning but all things have to considered to make land use planning are perfect and fulfils all the needs. Environment planning is the process to make decision to carry out development with due consideration given to the natural environment, social, political, economic and governance factors to achieves sustainable outcomes .The developer unit also can plan all the needs for individual, community and business through the environmental factors.
Individual environmental responsibility has been used by business and government in promoting public environmentalism through, for example, green consumerism, passive membership of environmental groups, and domestic recycling. Environmental responsibility is to be most significant where an individual believes in the useful of their pro-environmental behavior and where the self is supposed to be a responsible agent compared with other social agents. With this environmental responsibility into consistent behavior proves to be complex and dependent upon the individual’s social context as well as upon organized environmentalism.
In environmental factors, gardening and other outdoor activities assumes a central role in the daily life of residential. An environmental planner needs to focus on smaller and larger systems of resource extraction and consumption for the residential. Because this is might be affects the quality of life and health for current and future generations. This also includes oil and gas extraction, mining, fishing and forestry. With the lack of management of environmental problems such as land degradation, soil erosion and pollution also can create serious for community and business. For example, where countries rich in natural resources, the residential can be more relax with the environmental view.
The energy development also needs to be considered in individual residential. The effort to provide the primary energy sources and secondary energy change that can impact on air pollution and water pollution, mitigation of climate change with renewable. With this, developer can build many areas for transportation to make every residential can take public transport. This can avoid from air pollution.
Waste disposal, also have to consider. The developer also has to take seriously about this to make the residential comfortable with waste management. Waste disposal have at the right place to reduce their effect on health for residential. The management of wastes have to treats all materials as a single class, whether solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substance, and to reduce the harmful environment impacts of each through different methods

3.3.2 Environment-Community
In the community, there many things have to consider making the land use planning become smooth.
As a planner, develop new sewage treatment plant is needed to make the new land use area are fulfill the needs for community. This is process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic. This is can make environmental are safe fluid waste stream and solid waste suitable for disposal or reuse.
In the environmental factor, planner can use a number of quantitative tools to forecast impact of development on the environmental. This is include roadway air dispersion models to predict air quality impacts of urban highways and roadway noise models to predict noise pollution effects of urban highways. It can be more important tool to the urban planner by identifying early in the planning process any geographic areas or parcels which have toxic constraints.
Furthermore, tall buildings in particular can have a substantial effect in channeling winds and shading large areas. The building will typically be assessed as part of the environmental impact assessment for building if the microclimate around the building. The placement and design of buildings also may effected by the land on which they are placed. For example, the geological conditions such as fault lines may affect building requirements. Also, soil and rock considerations such as depth to bedrock may influence the height of very tall structures.

3.3.3 Environment-Business
Land-use planning developments on environment afford to help increase the profit of any association, organization and Malaysia. There is some stimulation that can be used to second this statement.
Firstly, the lands use planning in agricultural. Agricultural in Malaysia covers about 6.6 million ha, which is 20% of total land area in Malaysia. Two common classification of agricultural in Malaysia are Industrial crops and others crop. Industrial crops comprise oil palm, rubber, cocoa, tobacco and pepper. It covers 77% of the total agricultural land. Others crop such as paddy, fruits, vegetable and coconut covers 16% of the agricultural land. 6.6 million ha of agricultural can generate up to USD 11.5 million profit. If the Malaysian land does not plant its land-use on environment (focus on business of agriculture), it is possible for us to get food supply based on agriculture product. Besides that, agricultural also maintain the ecosystem. This evidence proof how important is land-use planning on environment.
Secondly, land-use planning in builds a recreational park. For example, Pahang Recrational Park. At Pahang Recreational Park, visitors are compulsory to pay the ticket fee in order to enter the recreational park. Different activities have different fee. Visitors from all around the world come to the park to feel the air freshness and relax with the picturesque. All the activities fees as bit as much contributes to the organization incomes, at once help in raising the name of Malaysia.

The housing and commercial centre sector in Malaysia has always been the major contributor of Malaysia development.
Malaysia still have a huge area of free land compared to others develop country such Singapore, Brunei and many more. Therefore, as a urbanization and town planner student, it is a must for us to fulfilled the requirement of the land-use planning needs.
Besides, land-use planning also helps Malaysia to achieve goals where the best plan is used for the land. Element of knowledge in land-use technologies also give a big help in order to make land-use planning success.



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